Acute blood glucose fluctuations can decrease blood glutathione and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;98(2):257-63. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.09.013. Epub 2012 Oct 16.


Introduction: Glutathione appears to have apparent antioxidant activity to counter regulate hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress. Adiponectin also plays a role in the suppression of the metabolic derangements in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to determine whether blood glucose fluctuations can alter blood levels of glutathione and adiponectin.

Methods: We enrolled 34 patients with type 2 DM. As a measure of short-term glycemic variability, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) was computed from a continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS), and data were recorded over 72 h. For long-term glycemic variability, we calculated the standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c over a 2-year period. Glutathione and adiponectin levels were measured after completing the 72-h CGMS data collection.

Results: The blood levels of glutathione were significantly and negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.543; P < 0.001), but not with HbA1c and SD of HbA1c. Adiponectin levels were also significantly and negatively correlated with MAGE and SD of HbA1c (r = -0.64 and r = -0.55, respectively; P < 0.001). Using generalized estimating equations, multivariate regression analysis revealed that MAGE is an independent predictor of serum levels of adiponectin (P = 0.002) and glutathione (P = 0.004).

Conclusions: We found strong associations between acute blood glucose variability, glutathione, and adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agent therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glutathione / blood*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Adiponectin
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glutathione