Mediterranean Diet and Incidence of Hip Fractures in a European Cohort

Osteoporos Int. 2013 May;24(5):1587-98. doi: 10.1007/s00198-012-2187-3. Epub 2012 Oct 20.

Abstract

Prevention of hip fractures is of critical public health importance. In a cohort of adults from eight European countries, evidence was found that increased adherence to Mediterranean diet, measured by a 10-unit dietary score, is associated with reduced hip fracture incidence, particularly among men.

Introduction: Evidence on the role of dietary patterns on hip fracture incidence is scarce. We explored the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) with hip fracture incidence in a cohort from eight European countries.

Methods: A total of 188,795 eligible participants (48,814 men and 139,981 women) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study with mean age 48.6 years (±10.8) were followed for a median of 9 years, and 802 incident hip fractures were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary instruments. Adherence to MD was evaluated by a MD score (MDs), on a 10-point scale, in which monounsaturated were substituted with unsaturated lipids. Association with hip fracture incidence was assessed through Cox regression with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: Increased adherence to MD was associated with a 7 % decrease in hip fracture incidence [hazard ratio (HR) per 1-unit increase in the MDs 0.93; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = 0.89-0.98]. This association was more evident among men and somewhat stronger among older individuals. Using increments close to one standard deviation of daily intake, in the overall sample, high vegetable (HR = 0.86; 95 % CI = 0.79-0.94) and high fruit (HR = 0.89; 95 % CI = 0.82-0.97) intake was associated with decreased hip fracture incidence, whereas high meat intake (HR = 1.18; 95 % CI = 1.06-1.31) with increased incidence. Excessive ethanol consumption (HR high versus moderate = 1.74; 95 % CI = 1.32-2.31) was also a risk factor.

Conclusions: In a prospective study of adults, increased adherence to MD appears to protect against hip fracture occurrence, particularly among men.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet, Mediterranean / statistics & numerical data*
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Hip Fractures / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Factors