Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Jul-Aug;44(4):504-8. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.99329.


Objectives: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) based herbal antioxidant supplement (HAOS).

Materials and methods: In vivo toxicity studies were performed in male balb 'C' mice by oral administration. Acute toxicity study was done at doses ranging from 2000 to 10 000 mg/ kg while in subacute studies, HAOS was given at doses of 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for any toxic sign and symptoms periodically. At completion of study animals were sacrificed; their hematological, biochemical parameters were analyzed and histopathology of vital organs was done. In vivo efficacy studies in human volunteers were done and the levels of vitamin A and Vitamin C in blood samples were analyzed in comparison to a similar commercially available formulation.

Results: No mortality and any clinical signs of toxicity were found in HAOS administered group of animals. There were no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis of vital organs showed normal architecture in all the HAOS administered groups. Human studies showed an increase of 32% and 172% in Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels respectively in term of bioavailability.

Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

Keywords: Acute and subacute toxicity; herbal antioxidant supplement; histopathology and bioavailability; seabuckthorn.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacokinetics
  • Antioxidants / toxicity*
  • Ascorbic Acid / blood
  • Biological Availability
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Dietary Supplements / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Hippophae*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacokinetics
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity*
  • Plant Preparations / isolation & purification
  • Plant Preparations / pharmacokinetics
  • Plant Preparations / toxicity*
  • Random Allocation
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin A / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Preparations
  • Vitamin A
  • Ascorbic Acid