Bioavailability improvement of mycophenolic acid through amino ester derivatization

Pharm Res. 1990 Feb;7(2):161-6. doi: 10.1023/a:1015828802490.


The potential bioavailability improvement of mycophenolic acid (MPA), 1, through ester derivatization was evaluated in monkeys at a dose of 20 mg/kg in this study. The acetyl solketal ester 3 was found to have excellent partition properties but poor aqueous solubility. Thus, even though it can be converted rapidly to MPA by plasma and liver enzymes, it showed poor oral bioavailability (56% of MPA) in monkeys. The bioavailability of the morpholinoethyl ester 4 and the acetyl morpholinoethyl ester 5, on the other hand, was found to be 236 and 150% that of MPA, respectively. Since ester 5 has greater aqueous solubility, but similar chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis rates compared to ester 4, the better bioavailability of ester 4 may result from its greater partitioning into the gastrointestinal membranes.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Mice
  • Mycophenolic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Mycophenolic Acid / pharmacokinetics*
  • Solubility
  • Species Specificity


  • Mycophenolic Acid