Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles induces autophagy in primary human keratinocytes

Small. 2013 Feb 11;9(3):387-92. doi: 10.1002/smll.201201363. Epub 2012 Oct 23.


Understanding the mechanisms of cell-nanomaterial interactions is vital in harnessing the potential of using nanomaterials in biomedical applications. By immuno-labeling of LC3 and TEM analysis, it is found that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are internalized by human keratinocytes and induce autophagy. Autophagy appears to play a cytoprotective role in response to toxicity influence exerted by the nanoparticles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autophagy / drug effects*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / cytology*
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Titanium / pharmacology*


  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium