Objective: Both the incidence and the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in elderly patients are increasing worldwide. Elderly ESRD patients have been found to be more prone to depression than the general population. There are many studies that have addressed the relationship between sleep quality (SQ), depression, and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in ESRD patients, but previous studies have not confirmed the association in elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate this relationship in elderly HD patients.
Patients and methods: Sixty-three elderly HD patients (32 females and 31 males aged between 65 and 89 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. A modified Post-Sleep Inventory (PSI), the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form health survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied.
Results: The prevalence of poor sleepers (those with a PSI total sleep score [PSI-4 score] of 4 or higher) was 71% (45/63), and the prevalence of depression was 25% (16/63). Of the 45 poor sleepers, 15 had depression, defined as a BDI score of 17 or higher. Poor sleepers had a significantly higher rate of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.03), significantly higher total BDI scores, and lower Physical Component Scale scores (ie, lower HRQoL) than good sleepers. The PSI-4 score correlated negatively with Physical Component Scale (r = -0.500, P < 0.001) and Mental Component Scale scores (r = -0.527, P < 0.001) and it correlated positively with the BDI score (r = 0.606, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, independent variables of PSI-4 score were BDI score (beta value [β] = 0.350, P < 0.001), Mental Component Scale score (β = -0.291, P < 0.001), and age (β = 0.114, P = 0.035).
Conclusion: Poor SQ is a very common issue and is associated with both depression and lower HRQoL in elderly HD patients.
Keywords: Beck Depression Inventory; Post-Sleep Inventory; end-stage renal disease; health-related quality of life; poor sleep quality.