Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering

AMB Express. 2012 Oct 23;2(1):56. doi: 10.1186/2191-0855-2-56.


To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation, which indicates that the yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM could be used to select the optimal combination of CBMs suitable for the cellulose of each biomass.