Glucagon, a peptide hormone secreted from the α-cells of the pancreatic islets, is critical for blood glucose homeostasis. We reviewed the literature and employed a computational systems analysis of intracellular metabolic and electrical regulation of glucagon secretion to better understand these processes. The mathematical model of α-cell metabolic parameters is based on our previous model for pancreatic β-cells. We also formulated an ionic model for action potentials that incorporates Ca ( 2+) , K (+) , Na (+) and Cl (-) currents. Metabolic and ionic models are coupled to the equations describing Ca ( 2+) homeostasis and glucagon secretion that depends on activation of specific voltage-gated Ca ( 2+) channels. Paracrine and endocrine regulations were analyzed with an emphasis on their effects on a hyperpolarization of membrane potential. This general model simulates and gives insight into the mechanisms of regulation of glucagon secretion under a wide range of experimental conditions. We also reviewed and analyzed dysfunctional mechanisms in α-cells to determine key pharmacological targets for modulating glucagon secretion in type 1 and 2 diabetes.