Purpose: To examine the possible association between the presence of apical periodontitis (AP) and the quality of endodontic treatment and coronal restoration over a time period of 14 years.
Materials and methods: 1781 panoramic radiographs of freshmen cadets, taken between the years 1995-2008 were included in this study. The periapical status was evaluated using the Periapical Index (PAI) scoring system. The chisquare test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine associations between apical disease and the quality of both the root filling and the coronal restoration.
Results: 62.3% of the examined teeth demonstrated AP. The number of root-filled teeth and the prevalence of AP were found to be higher in OPGs taken between 1995 and 2001 than those taken between 2002 and 2008. Both the quality of the coronal restoration and the quality of the root filling (length and lateral seal) were found to be correlated with the presence of AP, but the factor most significantly associated seemed to be the coronal restoration (OR = 0.404, 95% CI: 0.174-0.940).
Conclusion: The quality of the endodontic treatment in young Greek adults was poor but improved over the years. Both the quality of the endodontic treatment and coronal restoration appeared to affect the periapical status of the treated teeth. The factor that probably most determined the periapical health was the quality of the coronal restoration.