Prospective memory and antiretroviral medication non-adherence in HIV: an analysis of ongoing task delay length using the memory for intentions screening test

J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013 Feb;19(2):155-61. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712001051. Epub 2012 Oct 25.


Using multi-process framework by McDaniel and Einstein (2000), the current study examined whether the length of prospective memory (PM) delay intervals as measured by the 2- and 15-min subscales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) have differential predictive value for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Participants included 74 HIV-infected individuals whose ARV adherence was tracked with an electronic monitoring system. Participants were classified as "adherent" (n = 49) or "non-adherent" (n = 25) based on recorded pill bottle openings of ≥90% of prescribed doses over 30 days. An adherence group by MIST delay interval interaction was observed, such that non-adherent participants had worse performance on the 15-min, but not 2-min delay PM MIST subscales. The observed MIST 15-min delay effects were significantly more pronounced on time- versus event-cued PM trials. Long-delay time-based PM was predictive of non-adherence independent of demographics, mood state, self-reported adherence, and general cognitive functioning. Findings from this clinical study indicate that ARV non-adherence may be particularly associated with deficits in strategic cue monitoring over longer PM delays, which may inform interventions to improve adherence among persons living with HIV infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antiviral Agents / adverse effects*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / physiopathology
  • HIV Infections* / psychology
  • Humans
  • Intention*
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / psychology*
  • Memory Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Memory Disorders / diagnosis
  • Memory, Episodic*
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales


  • Antiviral Agents