Assessment of toxic effects of triclosan on the swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) by a multi-biomarker approach

Chemosphere. 2013 Jan;90(3):1281-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.087. Epub 2012 Oct 23.


The toxic effects of triclosan (TCS) on the swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) were assessed based on various biomarkers including enzymatic activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and mRNA expression levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The acute toxicity test showed the LC(50) value of 1.47 mg L(-1) for TCS. The mRNA expressions of CYP1A, CYP3A, GST and P-gp showed dose-effect relationships in female swordtail fish when exposed to TCS, These mRNA expression levels were found more sensitive to TCS exposure than the enzymatic activities of EROD, ERND and GST do. In addition, the male fish displayed higher gene expression levels and more dramatic changes in enzyme activities than the females did. Our data further demonstrated that TCS was a typical inducer to Phase I and Phase II metabolism enzymes and genes, suggesting it is a potential ecotoxicological risk to aquatic ecosystems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / toxicity*
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics
  • Cyprinodontiformes / genetics
  • Cyprinodontiformes / metabolism
  • Cyprinodontiformes / physiology*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Female
  • Fish Proteins / genetics
  • Fish Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Male
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Triclosan / toxicity*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Fish Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Triclosan
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Glutathione Transferase