The authors propose using primary and enduring negative or deficit symptoms for dichotomizing schizophrenic patients into two groups, deficit and nondeficit. The validity of this approach was examined by comparing 17 deficit and 17 nondeficit patients for differences in premorbid adjustment and degree of neurological impairment. Deficit patients were characterized by poorer premorbid adjustment and greater neurological impairment. Neurological impairment was not related to premorbid adjustment in either group or in the total patient population. These findings support the utility of deficit symptoms for defining a more homogeneous subgroup of schizophrenia.