Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer.
Methods and materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined.
Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs ≥0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL.
Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level≥0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level≥0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.