Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A is a Rho signalling-responsive co-activator of serum response factor (SRF). Here, we show that induction of MRTF-A expression is key to pathological vascular remodelling. MRTF-A expression was significantly higher in the wire-injured femoral arteries of wild-type mice and in the atherosclerotic aortic tissues of ApoE(-/-) mice than in healthy control tissues, whereas myocardin expression was significantly lower. Both neointima formation in wire-injured femoral arteries in MRTF-A knockout (Mkl1(-/-)) mice and atherosclerotic lesions in Mkl1(-/-); ApoE(-/-) mice were significantly attenuated. Expression of vinculin, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and integrin β1, three SRF targets and key regulators of cell migration, in injured arteries was significantly weaker in Mkl1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), knocking down MRTF-A reduced expression of these genes and significantly impaired cell migration. Underlying the increased MRTF-A expression in dedifferentiated VSMCs was the downregulation of microRNA-1. Moreover, the MRTF-A inhibitor CCG1423 significantly reduced neointima formation following wire injury in mice. MRTF-A could thus be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular diseases.