Deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their roles in cancer development have attracted much attention. Two miRNAs, miR-15a and miR-16, which act as putative tumor suppressor by targeting the oncogene BCL2, have been implicated in cell cycle, apoptosis and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the possible role of miR-15a/16 in the angiogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Using a stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we analyzed miR-15a/16 expressions in bone marrow samples from newly diagnosed MM patients and a panel of MM cell lines. miRNA transfection, western blotting analysis and assay of luciferase activity were used to examine whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the target of miR-15a/16. The functional roles of miR-15a/16 on tumorigenesis and angiogenesis were examined by in vitro angiogenesis models and in vivo tumor xenograft model. We showed that miR-15a and miR-16 were significantly underexpressed in primary MM cells as well as in MM cell lines. The aberrant expression of miR-15a/16 was detected especially in advanced stage MM. In human MM cell lines and normal plasma cells, expression of miR-15a/16 inversely correlated with the expression of VEGF-A. Western blotting combined with the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that VEGF-A was a direct target of miR-15a/16. Ectopic overexpression of miR-15a/16 led to decreased pro-angiogenic activity of MM cells. Finally, infection of lentivirus-miR-15a or lentivirus-miR-16 resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. This study suggest that miR-15a/16 could play a role in the tumorigenesis of MM at least in part by modulation of angiogenesis through targeting VEGF-A.