Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew

J Exp Bot. 2012 Oct;63(17):6237-51. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers279.


Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Glucans / metabolism
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Oomycetes / physiology*
  • Plant Diseases / immunology*
  • Plant Diseases / parasitology
  • Plant Immunity
  • Plant Leaves / cytology
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves / parasitology
  • Plant Leaves / physiology
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Plant Stomata / cytology
  • Plant Stomata / metabolism
  • Plant Stomata / parasitology
  • Plant Stomata / physiology
  • Proteomics*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stress, Physiological
  • Trichoderma / physiology*
  • Vitis / cytology
  • Vitis / immunology
  • Vitis / metabolism*
  • Vitis / parasitology
  • Vitis / physiology


  • Glucans
  • Plant Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • callose