Background: Specific food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (S-FDEIAn) is a distinct form of food allergy in which symptoms are elicited by exercise performed after ingesting food to which the patient has become sensitised. Non-specific FDEIAn (NS-FDEIAn) is a syndrome provoked by exercise performed after ingesting any food.
Objective: We sought to identify the culprit allergenic molecules in patients with FDEIAn, combining 'classic' allergy testing with an allergenic molecule-based microarray approach for IgE detection.
Methods: All subjects were evaluated who reported at least one episode of anaphylaxis in association with physical exercise performed within 4 h after a meal. We performed skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial food extracts, prick plus prick tests (P + P) with fresh foods (P + P), and serum specific IgE assays by means of both the ImmunoCAP (CAP) and the ISAC 89 microarray system (ISAC).
Results: Among our 82 FDEIAn patients, the most frequent suspected foods were tomato, cereals, and peanut. SPT, P + P, and CAP displayed different degrees of sensitivity. Each test disclosed some positivities not discovered by others. Seventy-nine subjects were positive to at least one food (49 to more than 20), whereas three were negative. All suspected foods were positive to at least one of SPT, P + P, and CAP. When tested using the ISAC, 64 (78%) subjects were positive to Pru p 3 [peach lipid transfer protein (LTP)], 13 were positive to other food allergen molecules, and five displayed negative results to all food allergenic molecules. Overall, 79 patients probably had S-FDEIAn and the other 3 NS-FDEIAn.
Conclusions: Multiple food hypersensitivity represents a clinical hallmark of a large percentage of FDEIAn patients. The very high prevalence of IgE to the LTP suggests a role of this allergen group in causing S-FDEIAn.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.