Next-generation peptide vaccines for advanced cancer

Cancer Sci. 2013 Jan;104(1):15-21. doi: 10.1111/cas.12050. Epub 2012 Dec 4.


Many clinical trials of peptide vaccines have been carried out since the first clinical trial of a melanoma antigen gene-1-derived peptide-based vaccine was reported in 1995. The earlier generations of peptide vaccines were composed of one to several human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted CTL-epitope peptides of a single human leukocyte antigen type. Currently, various types of next-generation peptide vaccines are under development. In this review, we focus on the clinical trials of the following categories of peptide vaccines mainly published from 2008 to 2012: (i) multivalent long peptide vaccines; (ii) multi-peptide vaccines consisting of CTL- and helper-epitopes; (iii) peptide cocktail vaccines; (iv) hybrid peptide vaccines; (v) personalized peptide vaccines; and (vi) peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology*
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Subunit / immunology
  • Vaccines, Subunit / therapeutic use*
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use*


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Vaccines, Subunit
  • Vaccines, Synthetic