Many clinical trials of peptide vaccines have been carried out since the first clinical trial of a melanoma antigen gene-1-derived peptide-based vaccine was reported in 1995. The earlier generations of peptide vaccines were composed of one to several human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted CTL-epitope peptides of a single human leukocyte antigen type. Currently, various types of next-generation peptide vaccines are under development. In this review, we focus on the clinical trials of the following categories of peptide vaccines mainly published from 2008 to 2012: (i) multivalent long peptide vaccines; (ii) multi-peptide vaccines consisting of CTL- and helper-epitopes; (iii) peptide cocktail vaccines; (iv) hybrid peptide vaccines; (v) personalized peptide vaccines; and (vi) peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccines.
© 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.