The immune microenvironment of human tumors: general significance and clinical impact

Cancer Microenviron. 2013 Aug;6(2):117-22. doi: 10.1007/s12307-012-0124-9. Epub 2012 Oct 30.


Human cancers grow in a microenvironment of stromal, inflammatory and immunocompetent cells which is variable from tumor to tumor. The characterization of the immune contexture, i.e. the type, density and functional orientation of immunocompetent cells, the presence or absence of tertiary lymphoid structures is a major prognostic factor for patients survival and represent a guide and a target for innovative cancer therapies.