Encapsulation-induced stress helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae resist convertible Lignocellulose derived inhibitors

Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(9):11881-11894. doi: 10.3390/ijms130911881. Epub 2012 Sep 19.


The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

Keywords: HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural); Saccharomyces cerevisiae; biofuel; carboxylic acids; encapsulation; ethanol; furfural; inhibitors; lignocellulosic hydrolysate; q-PCR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Immobilized / cytology
  • Cells, Immobilized / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal / physiology*
  • Lignin / chemistry
  • Lignin / metabolism*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Organic Anion Transporters / biosynthesis
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / cytology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Stress, Physiological / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis


  • ATR1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • FLR1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • YAP1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • lignocellulose
  • Lignin