Background: Simultaneous resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in carbapeneme non-susceptible (CNS) isolates will inevitably create problems. The present study was performed to characterize the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs) and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs) among the CNS Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) isolates in a Chinese teaching hospital, and to acquire their molecular epidemiological characteristics.
Methods: The β-lactamases genes (including class A carbapenemase genes bla(KPC) and bla(SME), metallo-β-lactamase genes (MBLs) bla(IMP), bla(VIM) and bla(NDM), and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs),bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)), QRDs (including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr) and ARDs (including aac(6')-Ib, armA and rmtB) of these 35 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. The clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results: Of the 35 isolates, 9 (25.7%) harbored a carbapenemase gene; 23 (65.7%) carried ESBLs; 24 (68.6%) were QRD positive; and 27 (77.1%) were ARD positive. Among the 5 bla(IMP-8) positive strains, 4 (80%) contained both ESBL and QRD genes, and all the 5 (100%) harbored ARD genes. Of the 23 ESBLs positive isolates, 6 (26.1%) were carbapenemase positive, 14 (60.9%) were QRD positive, and 18 (78.3%) were ARD positive. PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 35 isolates, indicating that the high prevalence of CNS E. cloacae isolates was not caused by clonal dissemination.
Conclusion: QRD and ARD genes were highly prevalent among the CNS E. cloacae isolates. Multiple resistant genes were co-expressed in the same isolates. The CNS E. cloacae isolate co-expressing bla(NDM-1), bla(IMP-26), qnrA1 and qnrS1 was first reported.