Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): a genetically sensitive investigation of cognitive and behavioral development from childhood to young adulthood

Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Feb;16(1):117-25. doi: 10.1017/thg.2012.91. Epub 2012 Oct 30.


The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a large longitudinal sample of twins born in England and Wales between 1994 and 1996. The focus of TEDS has been on cognitive and behavioral development, including difficulties in the context of normal development. TEDS began when multiple births were identified from birth records and the families were invited to take part in the study; 16,810 pairs of twins were originally enrolled in TEDS. More than 10,000 of these twin pairs remain enrolled in the study to date. DNA has been collected for more than 7,000 pairs, and genome-wide genotyping data for two million DNA markers are available for 3,500 individuals. The TEDS families have taken part in studies when the twins were aged 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age. Data collection is currently underway to assess the adult destinations of the twins as they move from school to university and the workplace. Between January 2012 and December 2014, all of the TEDS twins will turn 18, and the study will transition to an adult sample. TEDS represents an outstanding resource for investigating the developmental effects of genes and environments on complex quantitative traits from childhood to young adulthood and beyond.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Twin Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Development*
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / epidemiology
  • Child Behavior Disorders / genetics*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / genetics*
  • Diseases in Twins / epidemiology
  • Diseases in Twins / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetics, Behavioral*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries*
  • Twins / genetics*
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology
  • Young Adult