Trypanosoma evansi kDNA minicircle found in the Venezuelan nectar-feeding bat Leptonycteris curasoae (Glossophaginae), supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of that parasite in South America

Parasitol Int. 2013 Apr;62(2):95-9. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2012.10.003. Epub 2012 Oct 27.


Trypanosoma evansi is a mammal generalist protozoon which causes negative effects on health and productivity in bovine and equine herds in South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. By molecular methods, we screened the presence of that parasite together with other trypanosome species in 105 bats of 10 species collected in arid zones of northern Venezuela. The first molecular approach was fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which relies on amplification of relative small regions of rRNA genes (four loci) and fluorescence detection. By FFLB, 17 samples showed patterns of possible trypanosomatid infections. These samples were used to test presence of trypanosomes by PCR using the following DNA markers: V7-V8 SSU rRNA, gGAPDH and kDNA minicircle regions. Only in one individual of the nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, we were able to amplify 1000bp of the trypanosome kDNA minicircle. That PCR product was sequenced and the parasite species was determined by NCBI-BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Both analyses showed that the minicircle sequence corresponds to Trypanosoma evansi. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequence obtained in this study clustered with a T. evansi sequence obtained in a Venezuelan capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, and distant of others two T. evansi sequences obtained in a Colombian capybara and horse. This result supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of T. evansi in South America.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / parasitology
  • Chiroptera / parasitology*
  • DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
  • DNA, Kinetoplast / isolation & purification*
  • DNA, Protozoan / chemistry
  • DNA, Protozoan / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics
  • Horse Diseases / parasitology
  • Horses
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protozoan Proteins / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / veterinary
  • Trypanosoma / classification
  • Trypanosoma / genetics
  • Trypanosoma / isolation & purification*
  • Trypanosomiasis / parasitology
  • Trypanosomiasis / veterinary*
  • Venezuela


  • DNA, Kinetoplast
  • DNA, Protozoan
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • Protozoan Proteins
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases