Prevalence and genomic association of reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration

Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;155(2):260-269.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.08.011. Epub 2012 Oct 27.


Purpose: To survey the prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using multiple imaging methods, and to investigate the association between reticular pseudodrusen and polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genes.

Design: Retrospective case series.

Methods: This study included 216 consecutive patients with late AMD (typical AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy [PCV], retinal angiomatous proliferation [RAP], or geographic atrophy). Eyes were assessed for reticular pseudodrusen using the blue channel of color fundus photography, infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The major AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (CFH Y402 rs1061170, CFH I62V rs800292, and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924) were genotyped.

Results: Forty-nine eyes of 30 patients had a reticular pattern in ≥2 imaging modalities and were diagnosed with reticular pseudodrusen. Of these, 16 had bilateral late AMD, whereas 32 of 186 patients without reticular pseudodrusen had bilateral late AMD (P < .001). The prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen was 83% in RAP, 50% in geographic atrophy, 9% in typical AMD, and 2% in PCV. The frequency of the T allele in ARMS2 A69S in patients with and without reticular pseudodrusen was 78.6% and 59.9%, respectively (P=.007).

Conclusions: The prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen was low in PCV cases. About 50% of patients with reticular pseudodrusen had bilateral late AMD. The connection of ARMS2 risk allele and reticular pseudodrusen was confirmed in a Japanese population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Choroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • Complement Factor H / genetics
  • Female
  • Genomics
  • Genotype
  • Geographic Atrophy / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / diagnosis
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Macular Degeneration / genetics
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Polyps / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Retinal Drusen / diagnosis
  • Retinal Drusen / epidemiology*
  • Retinal Drusen / genetics
  • Retinal Neovascularization / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Visual Acuity / physiology


  • ARMS2 protein, human
  • CFH protein, human
  • Proteins
  • Complement Factor H