Grape seed as a functional food ingredient in bread-making

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 May;64(3):372-9. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2012.738650. Epub 2012 Nov 1.


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed (GS) on the rheological and bread-making properties, antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of bread. Wheat flour was replaced with GS at levels of 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%. GS increased the dough development time at a level of 5.0% but did not change it at levels of 2.5% and 7.5%. The dough stability value increased from 6.4 to 12.3 min with the increase of GS content from 0% to 7.5%. Mixing tolerance index decreased from 41.1 to 6.4 Brabender Units Equivalent. Extensibility of dough containing GS was higher than that of the control dough. The antioxidant activities of the bread increased significantly with the increased GS substitution. Gallic acid and catechin content increased in the bread containing GS. It was concluded that GS could be added to the formulae to improve functionality of the bread.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Bread*
  • Catechin / analysis
  • Diet
  • Flour / analysis*
  • Food Handling
  • Food Technology
  • Functional Food*
  • Gallic Acid / analysis
  • Humans
  • Polyphenols / analysis*
  • Rheology
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Triticum
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Polyphenols
  • Gallic Acid
  • Catechin