Primary care is the central pillar of health care. The increasingly complex health needs of the population and individual patients in a changing society can only be met by promoting interprofessional collaboration (IpC) within primary care teams. The aim of this Position Paper of the European Forum for Primary Care (EFPC) is to analyse how to improve IpC within primary care teams. Clarification of the concept is the first step. Conditions to improve IpC are based on the education of healthcare professionals, adapting human resources, the occupational structure and the skill-mix in primary care. These conditions, dependent on contextual factors, have a major influence on the development of IpC. They can be developed and organised at different levels: national, regional or team level. A framework is also needed to evaluate the level of collaboration within teams. Examples of good practice throughout Europe issued from the EFPC network illustrate this.