Rational and prudent antibiotic prescribing strategies are important both for the hospital sector as well as for ambulatory medicine. Prerequisites are the availability of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance data and of infrastructure and trained personnel needed for implementing and evaluating antibiotic policies. Currently, these requirements are not being met sufficiently in Germany. A major challenge in this country is the lack of adequately trained and experienced personnel. On the other hand there are several projects and initiatives supported in part within the national antibiotic resistance control program which have produced some progress and success. One example is GERMAP, the national antibiotic use and resistance atlas covering both human medicine and the veterinary field. Other examples are the recently improved program for continuous hospital antibiotic use, surveillance and feedback and the Antibiotic Stewardship (ABS) training program with establishment of an ABS expert network. Future perspectives include programs for evaluation of practice guideline adherence and the development and evaluation of quality of care indicators. Intermediate and long-term investment is needed in specialty training and certification of a sufficient number of infectious disease physicians, medical microbiologists and infection control doctors/hospital epidemiologists and hospital pharmacists.