Renal fibrosis is a major hallmark of chronic kidney disease, regardless of the initial causes, and prominent renal fibrosis predicts poor prognosis for renal insufficiency. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal fibrosis, and therapeutic interventions targeting TGF-β have been successful and well tolerated in animal models. However, these interventions might have adverse effects by inducing systemic inflammation due to the strong bifunctional role of TGF-β (pro-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory). This review of the current literature focuses on the inhibitors/antagonists of TGF-β, and discusses possible therapeutic approaches targeting them, describing the effectiveness of orally active bone morphogenetic protein 7 mimetics in reversing established fibrosis. It will conclude with a brief discussion of possible future directions for research.