Microbial metabolism of proteins and amino acids by human gut bacteria generates a variety of compounds including phenol, indole, and sulfur compounds and branched chain fatty acids, many of which have been shown to elicit a toxic effect on the lumen. Bacterial fermentation of amino acids and proteins occurs mainly in the distal colon, a site that is often fraught with symptoms from disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism by the gut microbiota, proteolysis is less extensively researched. Many metabolites are low molecular weight, volatile compounds. This review will summarize the use of analytical methods to detect and identify compounds in order to elucidate the relationship between specific dietary proteinaceous substrates, their corresponding metabolites, and implications for gastrointestinal health.