PET/SPECT imaging of hindlimb ischemia: focusing on angiogenesis and blood flow

Angiogenesis. 2013 Apr;16(2):279-87. doi: 10.1007/s10456-012-9319-4. Epub 2012 Nov 2.


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a result of the atherosclerotic narrowing of blood vessels to the extremities, and the subsequent tissue ischemia can lead to the up-regulation of angiogenic growth factors and formation of new vessels as a recovery mechanism. Such formation of new vessels can be evaluated with various non-invasive molecular imaging techniques, where serial images from the same subjects can be obtained to allow the documentation of disease progression and therapeutic response. The most commonly used animal model for preclinical studies of PAD is the murine hindlimb ischemia model, and a number of radiotracers have been investigated for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of PAD. In this review article, we summarize the PET/SPECT tracers that have been tested in the murine hindlimb ischemia model as well as those used clinically to assess the extremity blood flow.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hindlimb / blood supply*
  • Humans
  • Ischemia / diagnostic imaging*
  • Laser-Doppler Flowmetry
  • Mice
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic*
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods*
  • Regional Blood Flow*
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods*