Maple Polyphenols, Ginnalins A-C, Induce S- And G2/M-cell Cycle Arrest in Colon and Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Decreasing Cyclins A and D1 Levels

Food Chem. 2013 Jan 15;136(2):636-42. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.023. Epub 2012 Aug 23.

Abstract

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acer / chemistry*
  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints / drug effects*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Colonic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Colonic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Cyclin A / genetics
  • Cyclin A / metabolism
  • Cyclin D / genetics
  • Cyclin D / metabolism
  • Deoxyglucose / analogs & derivatives*
  • Deoxyglucose / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gallic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Gallic Acid / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology*
  • Sorbitol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Sorbitol / pharmacology

Substances

  • 2-O-galloyl-1,5-anhydroglucitol
  • 6-O-galloyl-1,5-anhydroglucitol
  • Cyclin A
  • Cyclin D
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • ginnalin A
  • Sorbitol
  • Gallic Acid
  • Deoxyglucose