Cardiac myxoma induced paraneoplastic syndromes: a review of the literature

Eur J Intern Med. 2012 Dec;23(8):669-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2012.05.015. Epub 2012 Jun 30.


Background: Atrial myxomas are the most common benign tumors of the heart and may present with a wide variety of symptoms. Although 45% of patients present with neurological symptoms, a diverse range of systemic symptoms also occur.

Methods: A systemic review of the literature related to the diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, and symptoms associated with atrial myxomas was performed.

Results: Here we summarize the current state of understanding about myxoma pathogenesis and treatments are described. We review the common and rare local and systemic effects of myxomas. Additionally, we review the paraneoplastic and metastatic potential of myxomas.

Conclusions: A better understanding of the diverse disease presentations, paraneoplastic syndromes, and side effects of cytokine abnormalities stemming from myxomas will aid the physician in earlier detection and monitoring of disease recurrence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Heart Atria
  • Heart Neoplasms / complications*
  • Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Heart Neoplasms / therapy
  • Humans
  • Myxoma / complications*
  • Myxoma / diagnosis
  • Myxoma / therapy
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology*
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / therapy

Supplementary concepts

  • Atrial myxoma, familial