Anti-inflammatory properties of rose oxide

Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Dec;14(4):779-84. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.10.015. Epub 2012 Nov 1.


Rose-oxide is a fragrance found in roses and rose oil. There are no reports about the pharmacological activity of this molecule. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether rose-oxide (RO) has anti-inflammatory properties and to investigate possible mechanisms involved with its effects. The anti-inflammatory activity of RO was first suggested by the formalin test in mice, an inflammatory pain model, because intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of RO (50 and 100mg/kg) inhibited only the late phase of this test. To further investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of RO, the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)- and carrageenan-induced paw inflammation models were used. Pre-treatment with RO (50 and 100mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema at 4, 6 and 24h after the CFA injection. In addition, RO (100mg/kg) reduced the IL-1β, but not TNF-α, local production induced by CFA. Administration of RO (25-100mg/kg) decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats, which was more evident at 3 and 4h after induction. In addition, neutrophil migration to the hind paw was measured by MPO assay after the carrageenan injection. The MPO activity was significantly inhibited by RO at 25-100mg/kg, 4h after stimulus. In another experimental set, administration of RO (25-100mg/kg) significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis model in mice. The results described here are the first report of pharmacological properties of RO and strongly suggest that RO possesses anti-inflammatory activity related to its ability to inhibit the IL-1β production and the leukocyte migration.

MeSH terms

  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Monoterpenes / chemistry
  • Monoterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Monoterpenes
  • rose-oxide