Neuronal control of pedal sole cilia in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis appressa

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2013 Jan;199(1):71-86. doi: 10.1007/s00359-012-0770-x. Epub 2012 Nov 3.


5-HT (serotonin) is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter that produces ciliary beating in gastropods when applied topically, but ciliary beating caused by gastropod serotonergic neurons has been described in only three neuron pairs. We extend these results to the North American Lymnaea stagnalis appressa, which is a different species from the European Lymnaea stagnalis. We describe a non-serotonergic neuron pair, PeV1, which accelerates pedal sole mucociliary transport and a serotonergic neuron pair, PeD7, which slows mucociliary transport. We compare and discuss development and identified neurons in L. s. appressa and in L. stagnalis, which have homologs to L. s. appressa PeD7 and PeV1 neurons. In addition to PeD7 and PeV1 neurons, we test neurons immunoreactive to Tritonia pedal peptide antibodies with negative results for mucociliary transport. In characterizing PeD7 and PeV1 neurons, we find that PeV1 does not excite PeD7. In semi-intact preparations, a strong increase in PeD7 neuron activity occurs during tactile stimulation, but V1 neurons are inhibited during tactile stimulation. Following tactile stimulation, PeV1 neurons show strong activity. This suggests a distinct difference in function of the two neuron pairs, which both have their axons overlying pedal sole ciliary cells. Application of 5-HT to the pedal sole initiates mucociliary transport in 1.4-1.9 s with a time course similar to that seen when stimulating a PeV1 neuron. This result appears to be through a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor on the pedal sole. We describe a possible external source of 5-HT on the pedal sole from 5-HT immunoreactive granules that are released with mucus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / drug effects
  • Action Potentials / physiology
  • Animals
  • Biological Transport / drug effects
  • Cilia / drug effects
  • Cilia / physiology
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / cytology*
  • Lymnaea / cytology*
  • Lymnaea / embryology
  • Lymnaea / growth & development
  • Lymnaea / physiology*
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Movement / drug effects
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Neurons / classification
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Peptides
  • Physical Stimulation
  • Serotonin / metabolism
  • Serotonin / pharmacology
  • Serotonin Agents / pharmacology
  • Species Specificity


  • Peptides
  • Serotonin Agents
  • Serotonin