The swine industry follows a large increase of meat production since the 1950s causing the development of bigger swine buildings which involves a raise of pollutants emissions. Due to recent anthropological pressures concerning the animal welfare, the limitation of neighborhood disturbances and atmospheric pollutions limitations, the livestock farming has to adapt their management methods to reduce or treat the aerial pollutants emissions. Through the diversity of livestock barns configurations, their climatic location, their size, and their management, we thus propose hereafter a critical review of the characterizations of these aerial pollutants. This is realized by distinguishing both solids and gaseous emissions and by referencing the measurements methods mainly used to analyze and quantify airborne particles, odorants, and gaseous compounds in the atmosphere of swine buildings. The origins of these pollutants are focused and the sturdiest techniques for concentration measurements are highlighted. Finally, we discuss pollutants abatement techniques criticizing their implementation in swine buildings and emphasizing the use of biological ways such as biofiltration for gases and odors treatment.