Despite advances in critical care, febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome remains the most important cause of mortality and neurologic deficits during childhood. Only a few therapeutic agents were reported to shorten the acute phase and improve outcomes. Therapeutic hypothermia was reported effective in stabilizing immune activation, brain edema, and seizure activity, to protect the brain from ongoing functional, apoptotic neural, and glial damage and the systemic expansion of the cytokine storm. We present two pediatric cases of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome, refractory to conventional medical therapy. Moderate therapeutic hypothermia at 33°C resulted in fast, sustained control of refractory status epilepticus. After 3 months, both patients recovered with a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4. Therapeutic hypothermia may play an important role in children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome.
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