Currently, there is evidence of health risks of triphenylmethane dyes after systemic absorption. This paper investigates the fate of Brilliant Blue (BB) and Patent Blue (PB) after 24-h in vitro diffusion, firstly through intact and secondly through shaven pig-ear skin (stored by freezing) from four leave-on cosmetics under in-use conditions. Both dyes showed no measurable permeation through intact skin but significant permeation was found through shaven skin. From 250 ng/cm(2) of dye in one applied dose there were found 52 ng/cm(2) of BB and 91 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-based after-shave, 39 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-free facial-cleanser, 35 ng/cm(2) of BB and 43 ng/cm(2) of PB from O/W emulsion, and no amount from W/O emulsion, as available to become systemically absorbed. Thirdly, the paper focuses on lingual mucosa after licking lollipops. Ex vivo porcine tongue dorsum was exposed to human saliva with 15,000 ng/cm(2) of dye for 20 min. 24-h diffusion resulted in 34 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB which can be directly absorbed into the blood system. Findings are troubling, particularly with regard to the frequent use of after-shave products by the male population and repeated lollipops licking by children.
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