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Review
, 22 (3), 220-8

Most Important Chronic Complications of Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis

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Review

Most Important Chronic Complications of Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis

Radojica Stolic. Med Princ Pract.

Abstract

The aim of this review was to highlight the most important complications of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis (HD). The quality of vascular access for HD should be suitable for repeated puncture and allow a high blood flow rate for high-efficiency dialysis with minimal complications. The dialysis staff must be well versed in manipulation of the AVF, and there should be a minimal need for corrective interventions. Construction of an AVF creates conditions for increasing the flow of blood through the venous system. Fulfillment of these conditions reduces the risk of turbulence and endothelium injury, which, in turn, minimizes the potential for stenosis. An AVF is closest to the ideal model of vascular access. The most important complications of fistulae for HD are lymphedema, infection, aneurysm, stenosis, congestive heart failure, steal syndrome, ischemic neuropathy and thrombosis. In HD patients, the most common cause of vascular access failure is neointimal hyperplasia. It is important to gain information about early clinical symptoms of AVF dysfunction in order to prevent and adequately treat potential complications.

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