As a novel cell cycle protein, Spy1 enhances cell proliferation, promotes the G1/S transition as well as inhibits apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. Spy1 levels are tightly regulated during mammary development, and overexpression of Spy1 accelerates tumorigenesis in vivo. But little is known about the role of Spy1 in the pathological process of damage and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Here we established a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Spy1. Spy1 expression was elevated gradually after sciatic nerve crush and peaked at day 3. The alteration was due to the increased expression of Spy1 in axons and Schwann cells after SNC. Spy1 expression correlated closely with Schwann cells proliferation in sciatic nerve post injury. Furthermore, Spy1 largely localized in axons in the crushed segment, but rarely co-localized with GAP43. These findings suggested that Spy1 participated in the pathological process response to sciatic nerve injury and may be associated with Schwann cells proliferation and axons regeneration.