Nutritional status is significantly altered in patients with end-stage liver disease (cirrhosis). Malnutrition is a common complication of cirrhosis and is known to be associated with a greater risk of post-operative complications and mortality, especially following liver transplantation. Neurological complications occur frequently after transplant and the nature and extent of these complications may relate to nutritional deficits such as protein-calorie malnutrition as well as vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies. A consensus document from the International Society on Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen metabolism (ISHEN) has been established in order to address these concerns. Careful assessment of nutritional status followed by prompt treatment of nutritional deficits has the potential to impact on transplant outcome and, in particular, on post-transplant neurological disorders in patients with cirrhosis.