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, 121 (6), 877-83

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for XIAP Deficiency: An International Survey Reveals Poor Outcomes

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Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for XIAP Deficiency: An International Survey Reveals Poor Outcomes

Rebecca A Marsh et al. Blood.

Abstract

There have been no studies on patient outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency. To estimate the success of HCT, we conducted an international survey of transplantation outcomes. Data were reported for 19 patients. Seven patients received busulfan-containing myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. Eleven patients underwent reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens predominantly consisting of alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. One patient received an intermediate-intensity regimen. Survival was poor in the MAC group, with only 1 patient surviving (14%). Most deaths were from transplantation-related toxicities, including venoocclusive disease and pulmonary hemorrhage. Of the 11 patients who received RIC, 6 are currently surviving at a median of 570 days after HCT (55%). Preparative regimen and HLH activity affected outcomes, and of RIC patients reported to be in remission from HLH, survival is 86% (P = .03). We conclude that MAC regimens should not be used for patients with XIAP deficiency. It is possible that the loss of XIAP and its antiapoptotic functions contributes to the high incidence of toxicities observed with MAC regimens. RIC regimens should be pursued with caution and, if possible, efforts should be made to ensure HLH remission before HCT in these patients.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Shown are analyses of 1-year survival (A), long-term survival (B), and survival stratified by reported HLH status at the time of transplantation (C; P = .035) in patients treated with MAC or RIC regimens.

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