The p300 and CBP co-activators are histone acetylases and central regulators of transcription in metazoans. The genomic occupancy of p300/CBP detected by ChIP-seq experiments can be used to identify transcriptional enhancers. However, studies in Drosophila embryos suggest that there is a preference for some transcription factors in directing p300/CBP to the genome. Although p300/CBP occupancy in general correlates with gene activation, they can also be found at silent genomic regions, which does not result in histone acetylation. Polycomb-mediated H3K27me3 is associated with repression, but does not preclude p300/CBP binding. An antagonism between H3K27ac and H3K27me3 indicates that p300/CBP may be involved in switching between repressed and active chromatin states.
Keywords: CBP; ChIP-seq; Polycomb; enhancer; p300; transcription.