Uptake of L-alanine, L-lysine, and choline into both preantral and antral mouse oocytes was enhanced by follicular cells. Follicular cells also enhanced glycine uptake into oocytes at the preantral stage of development, but no effect of these cells was observed at the antral stage. Glycine uptake was predominantly Na+ dependent and inhibited almost completely by 10 mM sarcosine, moderately by proline and its analog pipecolate, and poorly or not at all by other amino acids. By these criteria, glycine transport was mainly via system Gly in follicular cells and the oolemma at both the preantral and antral stages. Moreover, an increase in glycine transport via the oolemma between the preantral and antral stages was more than threefold larger than was the increase in transport of alanine or lysine. This relatively large increase in glycine-specific transport in the oolemma appears to obscure the ability of follicular cells to enhance glycine uptake into antral oocytes. In contrast to other amino acids, leucine uptake into oocytes was not enhanced by follicular cells unless 14 other amino acids were also present at their concentrations in mouse serum. An inhibitor of gap junctional communication, 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, abolished follicular cell-enhanced uptake of glycine and choline into preantral oocytes. Therefore, the extent to which follicular cells enhance uptake of a particular amino acid into oocytes depends on at least three physiologically important variables. Namely, enhancement may depend on the stage of follicular development, the presence of other amino acids in the environment, and gap junctional communication.