Elevated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the aqueous humor after phacoemulsification

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Dec 3;53(13):7951-60. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10231.


Purpose: To elucidate the impact of phacoemulsification on aqueous monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, and identify its cell origin.

Methods: For clinical study, aqueous humor samples were collected before and after surgery (17.0 ± 4.0 months postoperatively) from 21 cataract cases that underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Aqueous MCP-1 levels were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. For animal experiments, rabbits underwent phacoemulsification (± IOL). Aqueous humor samples were collected from nonoperated eyes and operated eyes, and immunoassays were performed. Eyes were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies.

Results: In the clinical study, mean (± SD) aqueous MCP-1 levels were higher postoperatively (1773.5 ± 321.2 pg/mL) than preoperatively (796.9 ± 211.3 pg/mL; P < 0.0001). In animal experiments, mean aqueous MCP-1 levels (pg/mL) were higher in postoperative eyes on day 30 (207.1 ± 62.9) than in nonoperated eyes (31.2 ± 12.5; P = 0.018). IOL implantation did not affect the changes in MCP-1 levels. After phacoemulsification, MCP-1 mRNA expression was increased in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and capsular bag. Expression of MCP-1 mRNA in the capsular bag, but not the other tissues, increased from day 30 to 90. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive immunoreactivity for MCP-1 in cells of the posterior capsule after phacoemulsification.

Conclusions: aqueous MCP-1 levels were elevated in both human and animal eyes after phacoemulsification. Proliferated Lens epithelial cells on the capsule might be the major cell origin for prolonged MCP-1 production after phacoemulsification. (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ number, UMIN000005788.).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Aqueous Humor / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL2 / genetics
  • Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism*
  • Ciliary Body / metabolism
  • Cornea / metabolism
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Iris / metabolism
  • Lens Capsule, Crystalline / metabolism
  • Lens Implantation, Intraocular*
  • Lens, Crystalline / cytology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phacoemulsification*
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Postoperative Period
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rabbits
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Interleukin-8
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • platelet-derived growth factor A