Neoplasm prevention and immuno-enhancement mediated by daily consumption of a proprietary extract from North American ginseng by elderly mice of a cancer-prone strain

Phytother Res. 2013 Sep;27(9):1339-44. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4880. Epub 2012 Nov 7.


Cells belonging to the innate immune system, known as natural killer (NK) cells, act as the first line of defense against developing neoplasms. We have previously shown in a leukemia-induced tumor model (mouse) that a proprietary extract (CVT-E002), of North American ginseng, administered in the diet, significantly increased the absolute numbers of NK cells, significantly decreased leukemia cells and significantly increased the life span of CVT-E002-fed leukemic mice. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the spontaneous development of tumors in elderly mice of the cancer-prone C3H strain. Dietary CVT-E002 was fed for approximately a year beginning when mice were almost 2 years of age. Control mice, consuming the same chow without CVT-E002, all developed assorted, palpable tumors between 22 and 33 months, while all mice consuming CVT-E002 remained alive and tumor-free until they were purposely euthanized as healthy animals. The absolute numbers of NK cells at euthanasia, in CVT-E002-consuming mice, were significantly elevated in both the spleen and bone marrow. Given these profoundly positive results and the fact that CVT-E002 already exists in the marketplace under the label Cold-fX®, the potential for cancer prevention in humans becomes apparent.

Keywords: cancer; elderly; ginseng; immunity; mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow / immunology
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Panax / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Spleen / immunology


  • COLD-fX
  • Plant Extracts