Background: The response of plasma lipids to dietary fat manipulation is highly heterogeneous, with some indications that APOE genotype may be important.
Objective: The objective was to use a prospective recruitment approach to determine the effect of dietary fat quantity and composition on both lipid and nonlipid cardiovascular disease biomarkers according to APOE genotype.
Design: Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 51 ± 9 y and a BMI (in kg/m²) of 26.0 ± 3.8 (n = 44 E3/E3, n = 44 E3/E4) and followed a sequential dietary intervention (the SATgenε study) in which they were assigned to a low-fat diet, a high-fat high-SFA (HSF) diet, and the HSF diet with 3.45 g DHA/d (HSF-DHA), each for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each intervention arm.
Results: An overall diet effect was evident for all cholesterol fractions (P < 0.01), with no significant genotype × diet interactions observed. A genotype × diet interaction (P = 0.033) was evident for plasma triglycerides, with 17% and 30% decreases in APOE3/E3 and APOE3/E4 individuals after the HSF-DHA diet relative to the low-fat diet. A significant genotype × diet interaction (P = 0.009) was also observed for C-reactive protein (CRP), with only significant increases in concentrations after the HSF and HSF-DHA diets relative to the low-fat diet in the APOE3/E4 group (P < 0.015).
Conclusions: Relative to the wild-type APOE3/E3 group, our results indicate a greater sensitivity of fasting triglycerides and CRP to dietary fat manipulation in those with an APOE3/E4 genotype (25% population), with no effect of this allelic profile on cholesterol concentrations.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01384032.