Two-dimensional real-time blood flow and temperature of soft tissue around maxillary anterior implants

Implant Dent. 2012 Dec;21(6):522-7. doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e318272fe81.


Purpose: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the basic nature of soft tissue surrounding maxillary anterior implants by simultaneous measurements of blood flow and surface temperature and (2) analyze differences with and without bone grafting associated with implant placement to try to detect the signs of surface morphology change.

Materials and methods: Twenty maxillary anterior implant patients, 10 bone grafting and 10 graftless, were involved in this clinical trial. Soft tissue around the implant was evaluated with 2-dimensional laser speckle imaging and a thermograph.

Results: Blood flow was significantly lower in attached gingiva surrounding implants in graftless patients (P = 0.0468). On the other hand, it was significantly lower in dental papillae (P = 0.0254), free gingiva (P = 0.0198), and attached gingiva (P = 0.00805) in bone graft patients. Temperature was significantly higher in free gingiva (P = 0.00819) and attached gingiva (P = 0.00593) in graftless patients, whereas it was significantly higher in dental papilla and free gingiva in implants with bone grafting.

Conclusion: The results suggest that simultaneous measurements of soft-tissue blood flow and temperature is a useful technique to evaluate the microcirculation of soft tissue surrounding implants.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Temperature / physiology*
  • Bone Transplantation
  • Dental Arch / surgery*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Female
  • Gingiva / blood supply*
  • Gingiva / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lasers
  • Male
  • Maxilla / surgery*
  • Microcirculation / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Optical Imaging / methods
  • Regional Blood Flow / physiology
  • Thermography / methods
  • Young Adult


  • Dental Implants