ESCMID* guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: diagnostic procedures

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Dec:18 Suppl 7:9-18. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12038.


As the mortality associated with invasive Candida infections remains high, it is important to make optimal use of available diagnostic tools to initiate antifungal therapy as early as possible and to select the most appropriate antifungal drug. A panel of experts of the European Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the clinical utility and accuracy of different diagnostic tests and procedures for detection of Candida infections. Recommendations about the microbiological investigation and detection of candidaemia, invasive candidiasis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, and oropharyngeal, oesophageal, and vaginal candidiasis were included. In addition, remarks about antifungal susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring were made.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Candida / drug effects
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candidiasis / diagnosis*
  • Candidiasis / drug therapy*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Biomarkers