In a case-control study including 237 cases with soft tissue sarcoma and 237 controls, previous jobs and exposures to different agents, including pesticides, were assessed. Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols gave a statistically significant increased rate ratio (RR) of 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.18] for soft tissue sarcoma. Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids of all types gave a nonsignificantly increased RR of 1.34 (95% CI = 0.70-2.56). During the 1950s, exposure to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid gave a threefold significantly increased risk. High-grade exposure to chlorophenols, which are also contaminated by dioxins, gave an RR of 5.25 (95% CI = 1.69-16.34). The increased risk was thus attributed to dioxin-contaminated phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols that gave an RR of 2.43 (95% CI = 1.30-4.54).